Documentation

Metrics

Metrics are the elements of a subject you want to monitor. All metric types - ingested, calculated and simulated - have several visualization and visibility options:

Attribute Description
Unit Provide the unit of measurement. E.g. hPa, Celcius or meters.
Decimal precision Determine how many figures are shown after the comma
Value lower bound Determines the default lower bound in graphs. Leaving empty will result in a lower bound based on the data.
Value upper bound Determines the default upper bound in graphs. Leaving empty will result in a upper bound based on the data.
Value type Choose from ‘Continuous’ or ‘Discrete’. Continuous values can take on any value, such as temperature values. Discrete values can only take on certain values, for instance (binary) integer values such as 0 for closed and 1 for open. This is used by the web app to optimize visualization, like showing a step line graph for raw measurement values.
Stale time (minutes) Expected interval in between consecutive measurements. The graph will show gaps when data is not received within the stale time.
Hide Choose whether you want to see the metric on the subject dashboard

Ingested metric

An ingested metric receives data from a device, sensor or other external system. Example: a sensor that is sending values for both temperature and humidity.

Attribute Description
Name Give the ingested metric a descriptive name so you can easily recognize and find it.
Data type You can choose if the ingested data is a number, location or text value. You can check our docs about sending measurements to get to know how you integrate with our platform over HTTP, MQTT or CoAP
External ID Provide the ID the metric has in your own systems. In this way you can easily map metric to the ID naming conventions they relate to in your own systems. This external ID is also used to construct the default ingestion IDs you have to provide when sending measurements for ingested metrics.
Mapping level Ingestion IDs are used when sending measurements, which will map to a certain metric of a specific subject. In most cases the ingestion ID for a metric is configured on the subjects containing the metric. However, in some cases a child subject may be responsible for sending measurements for its parent subject (e.g. a sensor as child subject which measures the temperature of an asset which is its parent subject). In those cases it may be useful to configure ingestion IDs on the child subjects instead. This makes it possible to move a subject to another parent without having to update the ingestion ID.

Calculated metric

A calculated metric can be computed from the values of one or more metrics and numeric properties within a subject. A simple example will be an electrical station for which you want to compute the wattage by multiplying voltage with amperage (this is made visible in the examples).

The main elements of a calculation are the name (1) together with the arguments (2) that can be used in the calculation (3).

Calculated metric edit

Arguments

In a calculation metrics and numeric properties within a subject type can be used. These metrics and properties are referred to as the arguments of the calculation.

Attribute Description
Source Either a metric or a property with a numeric value present on the subject type
Alias A name without spaces that can be used to refer to the argument in the computation
Max age For metric sources this specifies how long ago a measurement may have been received to be used for the calculation

For metrics configured as argument it is possible to use its value and/or date in the computation. For example if we add a Wattage metric as argument with alias wattage we can use its value with wattage.value and its date in milliseconds with wattage.date. For properties configured as argument it is possible to use its value. For example if we add a property Height with alias height we can use its value with height.value.

Max age explained

A calculation is always triggered when a measurement is received on a metric that is used in the calculation. Next, measurements of the other metrics are retrieved based on the max age that is configured. Here are some examples:

Max age metric 1 Max age metric 2 Results
0 seconds 0 seconds The calculation will only proceed when both metrics have a measurement with the same timestamp (in milliseconds)
0 seconds empty Measurement for metric 1 received, the last known measurement of metric 2 will be used for the calculation. Measurement for metric 2 received, the calculation will only proceed when there is a measurement of metric 1 with the same timestamp (in milliseconds)
empty 60 seconds Measurement for metric 1 received, the calculation will proceed when there is measurement of metric 2 which is not older than 60 seconds. Measurement for metric 2 received, the last known measurement of metric 1 will be used for the calculation

Calculation

The calculation is defined using the editor in a user-friendly language. The language allows you to:

Last but not least, formulating a calculation is getting more convenient when you use the editor features and watch the examples.

Define variables

For your convenience and readability of your calculation it is possible to split your calculation into smaller calculations. Each of the smaller calculations may be saved in a variable definition. An example of this is wattage = voltage.value * amperage.value in the example at the start of this section. This allows referring to the result of the computation voltage.value * amperage.value via the name wattage.

Arithmetic operations

All basic arithmetic operations can be applied to values in your calculation:

Operation Symbol Example Comment
Addition + 5 + 7 -
Subtraction - 10 - 5 -
Multiplication * 3 * 9 -
Division / 10 / 2 Division by 0 will produce no result
Parenthesis ( ) (5 + 7) * 8 Here 5 + 7 takes precedence over multiplication by 8

Multiplication and division take precedence over addition and subtraction, as per the standard arithmetic rules. Any (decimal) number values, variable definitions, loaded values or input argument values can be used in arithmetic. Operations can also be chained. Some examples:

load sum with default 0
a = voltage.value * 5.5
b = a - 7 + 8 / 2
c = sum + b
save c as sum
d = (c + 10) * 5
output d
Functions

Many default computations are available as functions. Functions can be used anywhere in your computation where a numeric value is expected, and can take as input any literal value, input argument value, loaded value or arithmetic. For example: compute and output the maximum value of a metric argument with alias inputMetric so far using the max function:

load maxValue
newMaxValue = max(maxValue, inputMetric.value)
save newMaxValue as maxValue
output newMaxValue
abs(value)

Computes the absolute value of a number value.

Parameter Description
value Input value to compute absolute value for
ceil(value)

Rounds decimal numbers down to the closest integer value.

Parameter Description
value Value to round
cos(degrees)

Computes the cosine of the provided number of degrees.

Parameter Description
degrees Input in degrees
distanceBetween(latitudeFrom,longitudeFrom,latitudeTo,longitudeTo)

Computes the Geodetic (across the Earth’s surface) distance in meters between two points using the WGS84 coordinate reference system.

Parameter Description
latitudeFrom From position latitude in degrees
longitudeFrom From position longitude in degrees
latitudeTo To position latitude in degrees
longitudeTo To position latitude in degrees
distanceBetweenXY(xFrom,yFrom,xTo,yTo)

Computes the Euclidean (straight) distance between two 2D points. Distance is in the same unit as provided coordinates.

Parameter Description
xFrom From position x coordinate
yFrom From position y coordinate
xTo To position x coordinate
yTo To position y coordinate
distanceBetweenXYZ(xFrom,yFrom,zFrom,xTo,yTo,zTo)

Computes the Euclidean (straight) distance between two 3D points. Distance is in the same unit as provided coordinates.

Parameter Description
xFrom From position x coordinate
yFrom From position y coordinate
zFrom From position z coordinate
xTo To position x coordinate
yTo To position y coordinate
zTo To position z coordinate
floor(value)

Rounds decimal numbers down to the closest integer value.

Parameter Description
value Value to round
max(value1,value2)

Computes the maximum value of two number values.

Parameter Description
value1 First value to compare
value2 Second value to compare
min(value1,value2)

Computes the minimum value of two number values.

Parameter Description
value1 First value to compare
value2 Second value to compare
now()

Provides the current time in milliseconds since Unix Epoch.

pi()

Provides the value of Pi with eight decimals of precision.

pow(value,power)

Computes the power of a number value.

Parameter Description
value Input value to compute power for
power Power value. Decimal power values are rounded down to the closest integer value.
random(lower,upper)

Generates a random decimal number from a continuously uniform distribution between provided upper and lower bounds.

Parameter Description
lower Lower bound for random number (inclusive)
upper Upper bound for random number (exclusive)
remainder(dividend,divisor)

Computes the remainder of a division. For example, the remainder of 9 / 2.5 is 1.5. The remainder always takes the sign of the dividend.

Parameter Description
dividend Dividend of the division
divisor Divisor of the division
round(value,precision)

Rounds decimal numbers to a specified number of decimals. Precision rounded down to closest integer value.

Parameter Description
value Value to round
precision Number of decimals to round to (max 8). Decimals precision values are rounded down to nearest integer.
sin(degrees)

Computes the sine of the provided number of degrees.

Parameter Description
degrees Input in degrees
sqrt(value)

Computes the square root of a number value.

Parameter Description
value Input value to compute square root for
tan(degrees)

Computes the tangent of the provided number of degrees.

Parameter Description
degrees Input in degrees
Save and load values

It is possible to save and load values between consecutive evaluations of the calculation. A numeric value can be saved at the end of a calculation, so that it can be loaded the next time the calculation is evaluated. A maximum of 10 values can be saved and if a value exceeds 8 decimal places, it will be rounded off. For example: we want to compare the value of a metric to its previous value.

load previousValue
difference = bitcoin.value - previousValue
save bitcoin.value as previousValue
output difference

Values must be loaded at the beginning of a calculation with a name that that is later used to save the value. See load previousValue will create a variable with name previousValue. If a variable is loaded, a value must be saved in it at some point during the calculation. See save bitcoin.value as previousValue which saves the current bitcoin metric value in previousValue to be used by the next evaluation of the calculation.

It is possible to use the value of a loaded variable to update its own value. For example when we are keeping a sum:

load bitcoinSum with default 0
newSum = bitcoinSum + bitcoin.value
save newSum as bitcoinSum
output newSum

In this case a default must be provided when loading the variable, see load valueSum with default 0. This default value is used when the load variable does not yet have a value, if this default was not present it would never be possible to set a value initially.

Conditionals

Within the calculated metric editor you are able to make use of conditionals to extend the ability to perform operations based on certain conditions. This is achieved by using if, then and else statements. To further extend the ability to make use of conditionals in the platform, you can combine conditions using and / or statements.

if-then-else

If-then-else statements are used to to allow conditional execution of statements. A condition needs to be stated after the if statement. If the said condition is true, the then value will be used. If the condition returns false the else value will be used.

if <condition> then <value1> else <value2>
and

Using the and operator allows you to combine two conditions into a single expression, in this case both conditions need to return true in order for the and operator to return true.

In case of one of the conditions returning false, the operator will also return false.

The syntax can be seen below:

<condition1> and <condition2>

To illustrate how you can combine if, then and else statements with and, see the sample syntax below:

if <condition1> and <condition2> then <value1> else <value2>
or

With the or operator, you are able to combine two conditions into a single expression. If at least one of these conditions are found to be true then the or operator will also return true.

<condition1> or <condition2>

To illustrate how you can combine if, then and else statements with or, see the sample syntax below:

if <condition1> or <condition2> then <value1> else <value2>
Output

Each calculation must specify exactly one output value at the end of the calculation as follows: output <value>. In this case <value> can be any (decimal) number value, arithmetic, variable definition, loaded value or argument value.

Important to keep in mind:
  • A calculated metric is triggered when a measurement of one of the arguments is received.
  • A calculation will only take place when all variables within the calculation are present.
  • Above condition holds for each saved value and output independently. So a loaded value could be saved in a previous evaluation while no output was generated.
  • If an output value exceeds 8 decimal places, it will be rounded off.
Editor features

The editor has some smart features which makes it easy to use, but these features are not visible from the outside. The features are listed in the table and showed in the video below the table.

Feature Action Description
Extra info hover Use the mouse to hoover over the elements in the editor to see extra information.
Option list ctrl + space Get to see the list options you can select in the current context.
Option description ctrl + space Hit ctrl + space a second time to see the description of the option.
Commenting // or /_ -> _/ Put // at the start of a line to write a single-line comment. Alternatively start a multi-line comment with /* and end it with */
Red underline N/A A (part of) the calculation has a red underline when the editor detects a possible mistake. Hover the red underline for more details and suggestions.
Calculated metric edit

Examples

This section show some examples to make calculated metrics concrete and explain the settings.

Wattage calculation

The wattage will only be calculated when when voltage and amperage are received with the same timestamp. This is due to zero seconds max age setting for both arguments.

Calculated metric example 1
Heat index

The heat index will be calculated with the last known temperature measurement when the humidity measurement is received and with a humidity measurement not older than 10 seconds when a temperature measurement is received.

Calculated metric example 2
Speed

The speed is calculated with the last known location which contains the latitude, longitude and date values. This example includes save and load values, functions and arithmetic operations which all together shows the power and possibilities of a calculated metric.

Calculated metric example 2
The calculation of speed will only be executed when the loaded values and metric sources are present. The loaded values are not found the first time the calculation is triggered, so the calculation will not be executed, but it will save the values from the sources (ingested metrics) so they can be loaded in the next calculation.
Load Factor

In order to calculate the load factor, there are various conditions that need to be met in order to create a representative calculated metric. In this case, we are calculating the load factor when rP and qP are both positive, else a 0 value is returned as output for the calculated metric. This example shows the ability to use conditionals.

Conditionals example

Simulated metric

A simulated metric generates data based on the configuration. Example: a two hour sinus.

Attribute Description
Name Give the simulated metric a descriptive name so you can easily recognize and find it.
Simulation type Choose between a random walk and sinus two hours.
Measurement interval Choose with which frequency measurements are generated.
Value lower bound Determine what the lowest value will be for the measurements that are generated.
Value upper bound Determine what the highest value will be for the measurements that are generated.